Bone substitutes

More options for specific clinical needs.

Straumann BoneCeramic® is one of the best documented alloplastic bone substitutes on the market, offering a state-of-the-art scaffold with controlled resorption for vital bone regeneration without compromising on volume preservation. With its slow and controlled resorption properties and its homogenous composite of HA and ß-TCP (60/40%) it is an excellent choice for you and your patients in virtually any clinical situation. Since it is fully synthetic, the quality is consistent and reproducible. It has been used in more than 300’000 implant-borne dental restorations around the globe.

A 3-year clinical follow-up of implants placed in two different biomaterials used for sinus augmentation. Lindgren C1, Mordenfeld A, Johansson CB, Hallman M. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012 Sep-Oct;27(5):1151-62.

A histomorphometric and micro-computed tomography study of bone regeneration in the maxillary sinus comparing biphasic calcium phosphate and deproteinized cancellous bovine bone in a human split-mouth model. de Lange GL1, Overman JR2, Farré-Guasch E2, Korstjens CM2, Hartman B2, Langenbach GE3, Van Duin MA2, Klein-Nulend J4. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014 Jan;117(1):8-22. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

A novel ultra-porous titanium dioxide ceramic with excellent biocompatibility. Sabetrasekh R1, Tiainen H, Lyngstadaas SP, Reseland J, Haugen H J Biomater Appl. 2011 Feb;25(6):559-80. doi: 10.1177/0885328209354925. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

A prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study of implants placed after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate or deproteinized bovine bone. Lindgren C1, Mordenfeld A, Hallman M Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012 Mar;14(1):41-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2010.00224.x. Epub 2010 May 11.

Alveolar ridge preservation with guided bone regeneration and a synthetic bone substitute or a bovine-derived xenograft: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Mardas N, Chadha V, Donos N. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010 Jul;21(7):688-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.01918.x.

Back-scattered electron imaging and elemental analysis of retrieved bone tissue following sinus augmentation with deproteinized bovine bone or biphasic calcium phosphate. Lindgren C1, Hallman M, Sennerby L, Sammons R. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010 Sep;21(9):924-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.01933.x. Epub 2010 May 9.

Bone formation with two types of grafting materials: a histologic and histomorphometric study. Rokn AR, Khodadoostan MA, Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi AA, Motahhary P, Kharrazi Fard MJ, Bruyn HD, Afzalifar R, Soolar E, Soolari A. Open Dent J. 2011;5:96-104. doi: 10.2174/1874210601105010096. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

Bone tissue modelling and remodelling following guided bone regeneration in combination with biphasic calcium phosphate materials presenting different microporosity. Dahlin C1, Obrecht M, Dard M, Donos N. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/clr.12361. [Epub ahead of print]

Clinical and histologic evaluation of an enamel matrix derivative combined with a biphasic calcium phosphate for the treatment of human intrabony periodontal defects. Sculean A, Windisch P, Szendröi-Kiss D, Horváth A, Rosta P, Becker J, Gera I, Schwarz F. J Periodontol. 2008 Oct;79(10):1991-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.2008.080009 .

Clinical histology of microimplants placed in two different biomaterials. Lindgren C1, Sennerby L, Mordenfeld A, Hallman M. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009 Nov-Dec;24(6):1093-100.

Comparative study of biphasic calcium phosphates with different HA/TCP ratios in mandibular bone defects. A long-term histomorphometric study in minipigs. Jensen SS, Bornstein MM, Dard M, Bosshardt DD, Buser D. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009 Jul;90(1):171-81. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.31271.

Comparisons between Bio-Oss(®) and Straumann(®) Bone Ceramic in immediate and staged implant placement in dogs mandible bone defects. Antunes AA, Oliveira Neto P, de Santis E, Caneva M, Botticelli D, Salata LA. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013 Feb;24(2):135-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02385.x. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Computed tomographic evaluation of alterations of the buccolingual width of the alveolar ridge after immediate implant placement associated with the use of a synthetic bone substitute. Assaf JH, Zanatta FB, de Brito RB Jr, França FM. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013 May-Jun;28(3):757-63. doi: 10.11607/jomi.2719.

Convergent methods assessing bone growth in an experimental model at dental implants in the minipig. Friedmann A1, Friedmann A2, Grize L3, Obrecht M4, Dard M5. Ann Anat. 2014 Mar 5. pii: S0940-9602(14)00016-8. doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2014.02.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Correction of buccal dehiscence at the time of implant placement without barrier membranes: a retrospective cone beam computed tomographic study. Cortes AR, Cortes DN, Arita ES. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013 Nov-Dec;28(6):1564-9. doi: 10.11607/jomi.3093.

Defect healing with various bone substitutes. Yip I1, Ma L, Mattheos N, Dard M, Lang NP. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014 Apr 5. doi: 10.1111/clr.12395. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of coating Straumann Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation. Mrozik KM, Gronthos S, Menicanin D, Marino V, Bartold PM. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Jun;16(3):867-78. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0558-3. Epub 2011 May 17.

Effect of enamel matrix derivative and parathyroid hormone on bone formation in standardized osseous defects: an experimental study in minipigs. Jensen SS, Chen B, Bornstein MM, Bosshardt DD, Buser D. J Periodontol. 2011 Aug;82(8):1197-205. doi: 10.1902/jop.2011.100675. Epub 2011 Jan 10.

Effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 associated with a variety of bone substitutes on vertical guided bone regeneration in rabbit calvarium. Polo CI, Lima JL, De Lucca L, Piacezzi CB, Naclério-Homem Mda G, Arana-Chavez VE, Sendyk WR. J Periodontol. 2013 Mar;84(3):360-70. doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.110674. Epub 2012 Apr 23.

Evaluation of a new experimental model to study bone healing after ridge expansion with simultaneous implant placement - a pilot study in minipigs. Stricker A, Fleiner J, Dard M, Voss P, Sauerbier S, Bosshardt DD. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013 Sep 18. doi: 10.1111/clr.12265. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of a novel biphasic calcium phosphate in standardized bone defects: a histologic and histomorphometric study in the mandibles of minipigs. Jensen SS, Yeo A, Dard M, Hunziker E, Schenk R, Buser D Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007 Dec;18(6):752-60. Epub 2007 Sep 20.

Four-year results following treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with an enamel matrix derivative alone or combined with a biphasic calcium phosphate. Pietruska M, Pietruski J, Nagy K, Brecx M, Arweiler NB, Sculean A. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Aug;16(4):1191-7. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0611-2. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Gene expression and morphometric parameters of human bone biopsies after maxillary sinus floor elevation with autologous bone combined with Bio-Oss® or BoneCeramic® Caubet J1, Ramis JM, Ramos-Murguialday M, Morey MA, Monjo M. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014 Mar 31. doi: 10.1111/clr.12380. [Epub ahead of print]

Guided bone regeneration at dehiscence-type defects using biphasic hydroxyapatite + beta tricalcium phosphate (Bone Ceramic) or a collagen-coated natural bone mineral (BioOss Collagen): an immunohistochemical study in dogs. Schwarz F, Herten M, Ferrari D, Wieland M, Schmitz L, Engelhardt E, Becker J. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007 Dec;36(12):1198-206. Epub 2007 Sep 10.

Healing of extraction sockets filled with BoneCeramic® prior to implant placement: preliminary histological findings. De Coster P1, Browaeys H, De Bruyn H. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011 Mar;13(1):34-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00184.x.

Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of a synthetic bone substitute for maxillary sinus grafting in humans. Tosta M, Cortes AR, Corrêa L, Pinto Ddos S Jr, Tumenas I, Katchburian E. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013 Aug;24(8):866-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02384.x. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Histological results after maxillary sinus augmentation with Straumann® BoneCeramic, Bio-Oss®, Puros®, and autologous bone. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Schmitt CM1, Doering H, Schmidt T, Lutz R, Neukam FW, Schlegel KA. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013 May;24(5):576-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2012.02431.x. Epub 2012 Feb 13.

Histomorphometric assessment of bone formation in sinus augmentation utilizing a combination of autogenous and hydroxyapatite/biphasic tricalcium phosphate graft materials: at 6 and 9 months in humans. Artzi Z1, Weinreb M, Carmeli G, Lev-Dor R, Dard M, Nemcovsky CE. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008 Jul;19(7):686-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2008.01539.x. Epub 2008 May 19.

Hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate and enamel matrix derivative for treatment of proximal class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial. Peres MF, Ribeiro ED, Casarin RC, Ruiz KG, Junior FH, Sallum EA, Casati MZ. J Clin Periodontol. 2013 Mar;40(3):252-9. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12054.

Immunohistochemical characterization of wound healing at two different bone graft substitutes. Sager M, Ferrari D, Wieland M, Dard M, Becker J, Schwarz F. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012 May;41(5):657-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2011.11.017. Epub 2011 Dec 12.

Impact of guided bone regeneration and defect dimension on wound healing at chemically modified hydrophilic titanium implant surfaces: an experimental study in dogs. Schwarz F, Jung RE, Fienitz T, Wieland M, Becker J, Sager M. J Clin Periodontol. 2010 May;37(5):474-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01551.x.

Implant survival after sinus elevation with Straumann(®) BoneCeramic in clinical practice: ad-interim results of a prospective study at a 15-month follow-up. Covani U1, Orlando B, Giacomelli L, Cornelini R, Barone A. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011 May;22(5):481-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.02042.x. Epub 2010 Dec 9.

In vitro characterization of a synthetic calcium phosphate bone graft on periodontal ligament cell and osteoblast behavior and its combination with an enamel matrix derivative. Miron RJ, Bosshardt DD, Gemperli AC, Dard M, Buser D, Gruber R, Sculean A. Clin Oral Investig. 2014 Mar;18(2):443-51. doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-0977-4. Epub 2013 Apr 26.

Influence of two barrier membranes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs. Part 2: augmentation using bone graft substitutes. Mihatovic I, Becker J, Golubovic V, Hegewald A, Schwarz F. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012 Mar;23(3):308-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02238.x. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Influence of two barrier membranes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs: part 1. Augmentation using bone graft substitutes and autogenous bone. Schwarz F, Mihatovic I, Golubovic V, Hegewald A, Becker J. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012 Jan;23(1):83-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02187.x. Epub 2011 Apr 25.

Influence of two barrier membranes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs: part 1. Augmentation using bone graft substitutes and autogenous bone. Schwarz F, Mihatovic I, Golubovic V, Hegewald A, Becker J. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012 Jan;23(1):83-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02187.x. Epub 2011 Apr 25.

Maxillary sinus grafting with Bio-Oss or Straumann Bone Ceramic: histomorphometric results from a randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial. Cordaro L, Bosshardt DD, Palattella P, Rao W, Serino G, Chiapasco M. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008 Aug;19(8):796-803. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2008.01565.x.

Osteoclast-like cells on deproteinized bovine bone mineral and biphasic calcium phosphate: light and transmission electron microscopical observations. Jensen SS, Gruber R, Buser D, Bosshardt DD. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014 Mar 26. doi: 10.1111/clr.12376. [Epub ahead of print]

Osteogenic medium is superior to growth factors in differentiation of human adipose stem cells towards bone-forming cells in 3D culture. Tirkkonen L1, Haimi S, Huttunen S, Wolff J, Pirhonen E, Sándor GK, Miettinen S. Eur Cell Mater. 2013 Jan 30;25:144-58.

Prospective randomized controlled clinical study comparing two types of two-piece dental implants supporting fixed reconstructions – results at 1 year of loading Sabine Ebler, Alexis Ioannidis, Ronald E. Jung, Christoph H. F. H€ammerle, Daniel S. Thoma Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 00, 2015, 1–9 doi: 10.1111/clr.12721

Radiographic alveolar bone changes following ridge preservation with two different biomaterials. Mardas N, D'Aiuto F, Mezzomo L, Arzoumanidi M, Donos N. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011 Apr;22(4):416-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.02154.x.

Radiographic and clinical outcomes of implants placed in ridge preserved sites: a 12-month post-loading follow-up. Patel K, Mardas N, Donos N. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013 Jun;24(6):599-605. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2012.02500.x. Epub 2012 Jun 3.

Randomized controlled trial on lateral augmentation using two collagen membranes: morphometric results on mineralized tissue compound. Friedmann A1, Gissel K, Soudan M, Kleber BM, Pitaru S, Dietrich T. J Clin Periodontol. 2011 Jul;38(7):677-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2011.01738.x. Epub 2011 May 10.

Randomized controlled trial to compare two bone substitutes in the treatment of bony dehiscences. Van Assche N1, Michels S, Naert I, Quirynen M. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2013 Aug;15(4):558-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2011.00408.x. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Regenerative wound healing in acute degree III mandibular defects in dogs. Mardas N, Kraehenmann M, Dard M. Quintessence Int. 2012 May;43(5):e48-59.

Ridge augmentation and maxillary sinus grafting with a biphasic calcium phosphate: histologic and histomorphometric observations. Friedmann A, Dard M, Kleber BM, Bernimoulin JP, Bosshardt DD. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009 Jul;20(7):708-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01708.x. Epub 2009 Apr 28.

Survival of transplanted rat bone marrow-derived osteogenic stem cells in vivo. Zimmermann CE1, Gierloff M, Hedderich J, Açil Y, Wiltfang J, Terheyden H. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011 Apr;17(7-8):1147-56. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2009.0577. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

The effect of loading in regenerated bone in dehiscence defects following a combined approach of bone grafting and GBR. Zambon R, Mardas N, Horvath A, Petrie A, Dard M, Donos N. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012 May;23(5):591-601. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02279.x. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

The in vitro viability and growth of fibroblasts cultured in the presence of different bone grafting materials (NanoBone and Straumann Bone Ceramic). Kauschke E, Rumpel E, Fanghänel J, Bayerlein T, Gedrange T, Proff P. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2006 Feb;65(1):37-42.

The influence of bone substitute materials on the bone volume after maxillary sinus augmentation: a microcomputerized tomography study. Kühl S, Brochhausen C, Götz H, Filippi A, Payer M, d'Hoedt B, Kreisler M. Clin Oral Investig. 2013 Mar;17(2):543-51. doi: 10.1007/s00784-012-0732-2. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

The influence of substitute materials on bone density after maxillary sinus augmentation: a microcomputed tomography study. Kühl S1, Götz H, Brochhausen C, Jakse N, Filippi A, d'Hoedt B, Kreisler M. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012 Nov-Dec;27(6):1541-6.

The ultrastructure and processing properties of Straumann Bone Ceramic and NanoBone. Dietze S, Bayerlein T, Proff P, Hoffmann A, Gedrange T. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2006 Feb;65(1):63-5.

The use of Straumann Bone Ceramic in a maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure: a clinical, radiological, histological and histomorphometric evaluation with a 6-month healing period. Frenken JW, Bouwman WF, Bravenboer N, Zijderveld SA, Schulten EA, ten Bruggenkate CM. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010 Feb;21(2):201-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01821.x. Epub 2009 Dec 4.

Three-dimensional analysis of bone formation after maxillary sinus augmentation by means of microcomputed tomography: a pilot study. Kühl S1, Götz H, Hansen T, Kreisler M, Behneke A, Heil U, Duschner H, d'Hoedt B. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2010 Sep-Oct;25(5):930-8.

No guarantee of completeness.

botiss cerabone® provides dependable stability and strength, predictably integrating into newly formed bone and ensuring volume maintenance and a strong long-lasting matrix to support the successful placement of dental implants. Its biocompatibility has been demonstrated in more than half a million augmentation procedures. cerabone® is the clinician’s first choice to esthetically preserve and restore the volume of the treatment site.


Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone Versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation. Yaghobee S, Ghahroudi AARR, Khorsand A, Mahmoudi S, Rafiei SC. Journal of Dentistry (Tehran, Iran). 2018;15(1):20-29.

Nonincised Papillae Surgical Approach (NIPSA) in Periodontal Regeneration: Preliminary Results of a Case Series. Moreno Rodriguez JA, Caffesse RG. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2018;38(Suppl):s105-s111.

Cortical lamina technique: A therapeutic approach for lateral ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration. Deepika-Penmetsa SL, Thomas R, Baron TK, Shah R, Mehta DS5. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017; 9(1):e21-e26.

Cortical Bone Augmentation Versus Nerve Lateralization for Treatment of Atrophic Posterior Mandible: A Retrospective Study and Review of Literature. Khojasteh A, Hassani A, Motamedian SR, Saadat S, Alikhasi M. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2016 Apr;18(2):342-59. 

Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue. Al-Juboori MJ. Open Dent J. 2016 Oct 31; 10:561-567.

Tuberosity-alveolar block as a donor site for localised augmentation of the maxilla: a retrospective clinical study. Khojasteh A, Nazeman P, Tolstunov L. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016; 54(8):950-955.

Comparison of two different xenografts in bilateral sinus augmentation: radiographic and histologic findings. Panagiotou D, Özkan Karaca E, Dirikan İpçi Ş, Çakar G, Olgaç V, Yılmaz S. Quintessence Int. 2015 Jul-Aug;46(7):611-9.

Flapless implant surgery: A review of the literature and 3 case reports. Romero-Ruiz, M., Mosquera-Perez, R., Gutierrez-Perez, J. and Torres-Lagares, D. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015 Feb; 7(1): e146–e152.

Nasal floor elevation combined with dental implant placement: a long-term report of up to 86 months. Lorean A, Mazor Z, Barbu H, Mijiritsky E, Levin L. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2014 May-Jun;29(3):705-8.

Influence of material properties on rate of resorption of two bone graft materials after sinus lift using radiographic assessment. Riachi F, Naaman N, Tabarani C, Aboelsaad N, Aboushelib MN, Berberi A, Salameh Z. Int J Dent. 2012;2012:737262. 

Preclinical (in vitro & in vivo studies)

Purification processes of xenogeneic bone substitutes and their impact on tissue reactions and regeneration. Perić Kačarević Z, Kavehei F, Houshmand A, Franke J, Smeets R, Rimashevskiy D, Wenisch S, Schnettler R, Jung O, Barbeck M. Int J Artif Organs. 2018 Apr 1:391398818771530. doi: 10.1177/0391398818771530. [Epub ahead of print]

“Inflammatory-Driven Angiogenesis in Bone Augmentation with Bovine Hydroxyapatite, B-Tricalcium Phosphate, and Bioglasses: A Comparative Study,” Vlad M. Anghelescu, Ioana Neculae, Octavian Dincă, et al., Journal of Immunology Research, vol. 2018, Article ID 9349207, 8 pages, 2018.

Hydrophilicity, Viscoelastic, and Physicochemical Properties Variations in Dental Bone Grafting Substitutes. Trajkovski B, Jaunich M, Müller WD, Beuer F, Zafiropoulos GG, Houshmand A. Materials (Basel). 2018 Jan 30;11(2). 

Polymeric vs hydroxyapatite-based scaffolds on dental pulp stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Khojasteh A, Motamedian SR, Rezai Rad M, Hasan Shahriari M, Nadjmi N. World J Stem Cells. 2015;7(10): 1215–1221.

Bone substitute material composition and morphology differentially modulate calcium and phosphate release through osteoclast-like cells. Konermann A, Staubwasser M, Dirk C, Keilig L, Bourauel C, Gotz W, Jager A, Reichert C. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;43(4):514-21. Epub 2013.

Biocompatibility and biodegradation of a native porcine pericardium membrane: results of in vitro and in vivo examinations. Rothamel D, Schwarz F, Fienitz T, Smeets R, Dreiseidler T, Ritter L, Happe A and Zoller J. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012; 27(1):146-54.

Effect of Guided Tissue Regeneration on Newly Formed Bone and Cementum in Periapical Tissue Healing after Endodontic Surgery: An In Vivo Study in the Cat. Artzi Z, Wasersprung N, Weinreb M, Steigmann M, Prasad H.S. and Tsesis I. J Endod. 2012;38(2):163-9. Epub2011.

Cerabone® – eine Spongiosa‐Keramik bovinen Ursprungs. Seidel, P. and Dingeldein, E. (2004), Mat.‐wiss. u. Werkstofftech., 35: 208-212. 

No guarantee of completeness.

Available as granules and paste, maxresorb® makes a difference in handling. Based on the knowledge of synthetic biphasic calcium phosphates, maxresorb® comes with a nanostructured surface to provide the required conditions for the adhesion of osteoblasts, while its slow resorption properties facilitate true bone regeneration.


Histomorphometric and mineral degradation study of Ossceram: a novel biphasic B-tricalcium phosphate, in critical size defects in rabbits. Calvo-Guirado JL, Delgado-Ruíz RA, Ramírez-Fernández MP, Maté-Sánchez JE, Ortiz-Ruiz A, Marcus A. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012 Jun;23(6):667-675.

Hydrophilicity, Viscoelastic, and Physicochemical Properties Variations in Dental Bone Grafting Substitutes. Trajkovski B, Jaunich M, Müller WD, Beuer F, Zafiropoulos GG, Houshmand A. Materials (Basel). 2018 Jan 30;11(2).

In vitro evaluation of an injectable biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) carrier system combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-9. Fujioka-Kobayashi M, Schaller B, Zhang Y, Pippenger BE, Miron RJ. Biomed Mater Eng. 2017;28(3):293-304.

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)9 induces osteoblast differentiation when combined with demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBAs) or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). Fujioka-Kobayashi M, Schaller B, Zhang Y, Kandalam U, Hernandez M, Miron RJ. Clin Oral Investig. 2017 Jun;21(5):1883-1893. doi: 10.1007/s00784-016-1983-0.

Donor age-related biological properties of human dental pulp stem cells change in nanostructured scaffolds. Bressan E, Ferroni L, Gardin C, Pinton P, Stellini E, Botticelli D, Sivolella S, Zavan B. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49146.

Influence of biphasic β-TCP with and without the use of collagen membranes on bone healing of surgically critical size defects. A radiological, histological, and histomorphometric study. Calvo-Guirado JL, Ramírez-Fernández MP, Delgado-Ruíz RA, Maté-Sánchez JE, Velasquez P, de Aza PN. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014; 25(11):1228-38. Epub 2013.

Bone substitute material composition and morphology differentially modulate calcium and phosphate release through osteoclast-like cells. Konermann A, Staubwasser M, Dirk C, Keilig L, Bourauel C, Götz W, Jäger A, Reichert C. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014; 43(4):514-21. Epub 2013


Monophasic ß-TCP vs. biphasic HA/ß-TCP in two-stage sinus floor augmentation procedures - a prospective randomized clinical trial. Jelusic D, Zirk ML, Fienitz T, Plancak D, Puhar I, Rothamel D. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2017 Oct;28(10):e175-e183.    

Assessment of implant stability following sinus lift procedures with different grafting materials. Jelušić D, Puhar I, Plančak D. Acta Stomatol Croat. 2014 Mar;48(1):25-32.

No guarantee of completeness.